The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-296) states that DHS S&T will "support basic and applied homeland security research to promote revolutionary changes in technologies; advance the development, testing and evaluation, and deployment of critical homeland security technologies; and accelerate the prototyping and deployment of technologies that would address homeland security vulnerabilities." Pursuant to this mission the Chemical Biological Division (CBD) seeks technologies to prevent and defend against a chemical and biological attack. In addition, the division is charged with pursuing research to improve response and restoration, conduct threat risk assessments, and invest in bioforensics research and development. The focus of this BAA is in the area of bioforensics research. The threat of terrorist or criminal use of pathogenic organisms and their toxins remains of great concern in the United States. There are vulnerabilities and needs to perform microbial forensic analyses for attribution purposes in a rigorous scientific manner. As part of the effort to deter biological terrorism and strengthen the law enforcement response to such an act, Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) 10, "Biodefense for the 21st Century" established a dedicated central microbial forensic laboratory known as the National Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC), as part of the Department of Homeland Security to provide bioforensics analysis of evidence associated with the event. The NBFAC operates in partnership with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the lead investigative agency in acts of terrorism. This BAA seeks research in the following technical focus areas (TFAs) to support the missions of the NBFAC and FBI for evidentiary analysis and interpretation of results to support a criminal investigation. The ultimate goal of this joint mission is the capture, indictment, and prosecution of the perpetrator(s) of the biocrime or terrorist attack. The NBFAC has instituted a robust, operational molecular biology program with enhanced capabilities to conduct genomic analysis of biological threat agents. The Bioforensics Research and Development Program supports NBFAC operational threat agent identification and characterization through investments in microbial forensics research and next generation technologies to include molecular biology, genomic comparison techniques, genotyping assays and physical/chemical analysis of sample matrix to better understand the origin, evolutionary history, production method and dissemination mechanism associated with the malicious use of biological agents. Pursuant to this mission the Bioforensics R&D Program seeks technologies to achieve the following goals: - Development and application of mathematical models for statistical confidence measurements in metagenomic analysis - Development of a procedure to support the transfer of viral cDNA generated in a BSL-3/4 laboratory to BSL-2 laboratory for genomic analysis - Whole-genome sequencing to capture the global biodiversity of human, plant and animal pathogens (bacterial, viral and fungal) in support of microbial forensics analysis.